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Notice on Printing and Distributing the Outline of the National 13th Five-Year Plan for Ecological Protection
Environmental Protection Departments (Bureaus) of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government, Environmental Protection Bureau of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, all dispatched agencies, and directly affiliated units:
In order to implement the "13th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development", vigorously promote the construction of ecological civilization, and in accordance with the requirements of the protection of mountains, rivers, forests, and lakes, strengthen ecological supervision and improve the system to promote the protection of ecological space and the ecological environment. The quality is stable and rising, and ecological functions are gradually improved, so as to maintain national ecological security. Our Ministry has compiled the "Outline of the National 13th Five-Year Plan for Ecological Protection" (see attachment). Is now issued to you, please refer to the implementation.
Ministry of Environmental Protection
October 27, 2016
Issued by the General Office of the Ministry of Environmental Protection on October 28, 2016
Outline of the National 13th Five-Year Plan for Ecological Protection
In order to implement the "13th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development", the "13th Five-Year Plan for National Ecological Protection" (hereinafter referred to as the "Planning Outline") has been formulated. According to the functional positioning of the environmental protection department's ecological protection, the “Planning Outline” puts forward the guiding principles and main objectives of national ecological protection during the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period, specifies key tasks and tasks, and guides environmental protection departments at all levels to carry out natural ecological protection.
I. Basic situation of national ecological protection
During the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period, environmental protection departments at all levels actively implemented a series of major decision-making arrangements of the Party Central Committee and the State Council on ecological protection work, strengthened ecological protection, and made positive progress in demonstration and guidance, system protection, and comprehensive supervision. The population of some key protected species has steadily increased. However, in general, China's ecological deterioration trend has not been fundamentally reversed, the contradiction between ecological protection and development and construction activities is still outstanding, and the ecological security situation is still grim.
(I) Work progress
First, the demonstration effect of ecological civilization demonstration construction is obvious. Ecological province construction has been carried out in 16 provinces across the country, 92 cities and counties (districts) have been named as national ecological construction demonstration zones, and 126 regions have carried out ecological civilization construction pilot work, and the demonstration has achieved significant results. Compiled the "National Ecological Civilization Construction Target System", actively promoted the upgrading and upgrading of ecological demonstration construction, and formulated the "National Ecological Civilization Construction Demonstration Zone Management Regulations (Trial)" and "National Ecological Civilization Construction Demonstration County and City Indicators (Trial)". Organize the selection of the first China Ecological Civilization Award, establish a reward mechanism, and promote social co-construction.
Second, the foundation for protecting ecological functions was further consolidated. Completed the survey and assessment of changes in the ecological environment nationwide (2000-2010), and issued and implemented the "National Ecological Functional Zoning (Revised Edition)". Developed and implemented the "Technical Guidelines for Red Line Delineation of Ecological Protection", carried out pilots for delineation and control in Jiangsu, Hainan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Chongqing, Shenyang and other places, and Tianjin and Jiangsu released and implemented the red line for ecological protection. Carry out county-level ecological and environmental quality assessment and assessment, carry out pilot projects for the management of environmental protection throughout the process in key ecological function zones in Chongqing, Hainan, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, and promote the optimization of national key ecological function zone transfer payment policies. 45 ecological health assessment pilots in 25 river basins across the country were launched. The United Nations National Tourism Administration organized the construction of a national eco-tourism demonstration area, and identified 72 national eco-tourism demonstration areas including the Beijing Nangong Tourism Scenic Area. Guide the development of national parks in Xianju and Kaihua counties in Zhejiang Province, and cooperate with the Development and Reform Commission to guide Beijing, Qinghai and other 9 provinces (cities) to carry out pilot work. Strengthen the ecological protection and supervision of mineral resources development, and carry out remote sensing surveys and assessments in some typical areas.
Third, comprehensive supervision of nature reserves has been strengthened. 2,740 nature reserves of various types have been established nationwide (428 national-level nature reserves), accounting for about 14.8% of the land area, more than 90% of the types of terrestrial natural ecosystems, and 89% of the national key protected wild flora and fauna protection. Standardize and improve the assessment system for the promotion and adjustment of nature reserves, and jointly issue the Notice on Strengthening the Supervision and Management of Development and Construction Activities Concerning Nature Reserves in conjunction with the nine departments. Satellite remote sensing monitoring of more than 400 national nature reserves has been completed, and a number of illegal activities involving nature reserves have been investigated and dealt with. Promote cross-border cooperation between China and Russia in nature reserves.
Fourth, the decision-making and promotion mechanism for biodiversity conservation was further improved. Establish China National Committee for Biodiversity Conservation, issue and implement China's Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan (2011-2030) (hereinafter referred to as the Strategy and Action Plan), and launch the China Action for the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity ( 2011-2020) "(hereinafter referred to as the" 10-year China Action "), and launched major projects for biodiversity protection. Completed the verification of the boundary of 32 terrestrial biodiversity conservation priority areas, and released the "China Red List of Biodiversity-Higher Plant Volumes and Vertebrate Volumes". Actively promote the legislation and biosafety management of biological genetic resources access and benefit-sharing. Continuously deepen international exchanges and cooperation, and actively implement international conventions such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and its Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. Most provinces have established biodiversity protection coordination mechanisms, and compiled and issued provincial-level biodiversity protection strategies and action plans.
(Two) main issues
At this stage, China's main ecological problems are:
First, ecological space is under constant threat. Urbanization, industrialization, infrastructure construction, agricultural reclamation, and other development and construction activities occupy ecological space; the fragmentation of ecological space has intensified, transportation infrastructure construction, river hydropower and water resources development, and industrial and mining development and construction have directly cut the integrity and connectivity of biological habitats ; Ecological destruction events occur from time to time.
Second, the quality of ecosystems and services is low. Low-quality ecosystems are widely distributed. The proportions of areas with low-grade forest, shrub, and grassland ecosystem quality are as high as 43.7%, 60.3%, and 68.2%, respectively. Soil erosion, land desertification, and other issues are prominent throughout the country. The supply of ecological products in urban areas is inadequate. The area of green space is small and scattered. The water system is severely artificial.
Third, the general trend of accelerated decline in biodiversity has not been effectively contained. Excessive use of resources, engineering construction, and climate change affect species survival and sustainable use of biological resources. China ’s higher plants are threatened by 11%, endemic higher plants are threatened by 65.4%, and vertebrates are threatened by 21.4%; genetic resources have been severely lost and lost, and 60% -70% of wild rice distribution points have disappeared; The invasive alien species are seriously endangered, with more than 100 species occurring in large areas throughout the year.
At the same time, environmental protection departments still have prominent problems in the following systems, mechanisms and management when performing their duties of guidance, coordination and supervision of ecological protection:
First, the management system of unified supervision is not perfect. At present, ecological protection management agencies are still set up according to ecological factors, and it is difficult to implement overall protection of the ecosystem. As the unified management system and coordinated linkage mechanism with the same powers and responsibilities have not been established, the separation of the owner from the supervisor and the fact that one department is responsible for one thing directly affects the ecological protection effect.
Second, the mechanism for common supervision of the whole society has not yet been established. Some local leaders have a weak awareness of protecting the ecological environment and have not yet firmly established the concepts of respecting nature, complying with nature, and protecting nature. The mechanism for the public to participate in ecological protection and supervision needs to be improved, and corporate ecological protection and supervision responsibilities are unclear. Some local environmental protection departments can only act on their own and respond passively when performing ecological supervision functions.
Third, the basic ability of supervision and management is weak. A unified ecological monitoring network has not been established, and it is difficult to accurately monitor the ecological status of important ecological regions in China, and it is not possible to proactively detect major ecological damage in a timely manner. Most county-level environmental protection departments have not set up independent ecological protection departments, and it is difficult to conduct normal supervision. The city and county environmental protection departments have serious shortage of ecological protection personnel and equipment, resulting in weak law enforcement. Ecological protection technology support is not enough, ecological big data integration applications have yet to take effect, and ecological protection laws and regulations and standard systems need to be improved.
(III) Opportunities and challenges
During the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" period, China's ecological protection faces major opportunities. First, since the 18th National Congress of the Party, General Secretary Xi Jinping has proposed a series of new ideas, new ideas, and strategies for building ecological civilization and strengthening environmental protection, providing science for ecological protection. Theoretical guidance and action guide. Second, the Party Central Committee and the State Council have made a series of major strategic decisions and deployments for the construction of ecological civilization, and made it an important task to promote green development and provide more high-quality ecological products. They have clearly requested to strengthen ecological environmental protection and point the way for ecological protection. Third, various tasks and measures for the reform of the ecological civilization system have been introduced and accelerated, the ecological protection and supervision system will be further streamlined, the ecological space use control will be fully implemented, the ecological environment monitoring network will be accelerated, and the ability of unified ecological supervision will be significantly improved. To lay a solid foundation for China's ecological protection work. Fourth, the awareness of ecological environmental protection in various places has been continuously strengthened. "Green mountains and green mountains are golden mountains and silver mountains" have become the consensus of party and government leading cadres at all levels, and a joint effort to protect the ecological environment is forming.
At the same time, China's ecological protection is also facing challenges: First, the contradiction between economic development and ecological protection still exists, the resource and environment constraints brought about by the traditional development methods are becoming increasingly tight, and the ecological and environmental risks are gradually prominent. Second, the contradiction between the people's increasing demand for high-quality ecological products and the existing insufficient supply capacity is becoming increasingly apparent. Third, the rate of biodiversity loss cannot be contained in the short term, and international compliance pressures are increasing.
Guiding ideology and main goals
(A) guiding ideology
Fully implement the Party Central Committee and the State Council's overall deployment and requirements for the construction of ecological civilization, thoroughly implement the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping's series of important speeches, firmly establish and implement the development concepts of innovation, coordination, green, openness, and sharing, and protect the forests, lakes, and lakes in accordance with the system Requirements, with the improvement of environmental quality as the core, the goal of maintaining national ecological security, the main line of safeguarding ecological space, improving ecological quality, and improving ecological functions, vigorously promote the construction of ecological civilization, strengthen ecological supervision, improve the institutional system, and promote completion The shortfall in the supply of ecological products has made greater contributions to building a well-off society in an all-round way and building a beautiful China.
(Two) basic principles
Based on the positioning of the environmental protection department's responsibility for ecological protection, during the "13th Five-Year Plan" period, natural ecological protection must follow the following principles:
——Take the overall protection of the ecosystem as the basic idea. In accordance with the requirements for the protection of mountains, rivers, forests and lakes, land and sea are coordinated and linked up and down to break the boundaries of factors and regions, implement unified protection and supervision of various types of ecosystems, and enhance the systemicity and synergy of ecological protection.
——Taking the protection of national ecological security as the fundamental goal. Strictly implement ecological space management and control, delineate and strictly adhere to the ecological protection red line, strengthen the supervision and management of nature reserves, protect the most important ecological space, promote the formation of an ecological security pattern with “two screens and three belts” as the mainstay, and build an ecological security barrier.
——Taking the protection of biodiversity as the main line of work. Protect and sustainably use biodiversity, promote the sharing of benefits from biological genetic resources, focus on priority areas for biodiversity conservation, improve protection networks, strengthen the protection of biological species and genetic resources, and build a biodiversity protection system.
——Taking strengthening unified ecological supervision as the main means. The establishment of a comprehensive, strict, timely and effective supervision system is an important basis for strengthening unified supervision of ecological protection. Establish a monitoring system and integrated supervision platform for "integrated heaven and earth", timely discover and investigate ecological damage behaviors, change from passive inspection to active discovery, and improve the level of refinement and informationization of ecological protection.
——Take the demonstration construction of ecological civilization as the main carrier. Actively participate in the reform of the ecological civilization system and promote the change of the system and mechanism in a direction conducive to unified supervision. Bring into play the role of the platform for the construction of ecological civilization demonstration zones and environmental protection model cities, organically integrate the main tasks and key tasks of ecological protection, innovate the protection mode, increase the demonstration effect, and stimulate the vitality of protection.
(Three) main objectives
By 2020, ecological space will be guaranteed, ecological quality will be improved, ecological functions will be enhanced, the rate of decline in biodiversity will be curbed, the level of unified supervision of ecological protection will be significantly improved, demonstrations of ecological civilization construction will be effective, and national ecological security will be guaranteed. Compatible with the comprehensive construction of a well-off society.
Specific work objectives: Comprehensively delineate the ecological protection red line, the implementation of regulatory requirements, and the formation of a national ecological security pattern; a more rational layout of nature reserves, continuous improvement of management and protection capabilities, and the creation of 30-50 national nature reserves. Completed the standardized construction of 200 national nature reserves, the proportion of the area of the national nature reserves to the land area of the country remained at about 14.8% (including the areas included in the pilot national parks); the background survey and evaluation of priority areas for biodiversity conservation were completed Establish a biodiversity observation network and increase protection. The protection rate of national key protected species and typical ecosystem types has reached 95%; the ecological monitoring database and supervision platform have been basically established; the institutional mechanisms that reflect the requirements of ecological civilization have been improved; The construction of 100 demonstration zones for ecological civilization and the establishment of a number of model cities for environmental protection have demonstrated that the demonstration effect of ecological civilization construction is obvious.
Third, the main task
During the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" period, we will focus on the fundamental goal of ensuring national ecological security, prioritize the protection of natural ecological space, implement major projects for biodiversity protection, establish a regulatory early warning system, increase the demonstration and construction of ecological civilization, and promote the improvement of ecological system stability. Sexual and ecological service functions to build an ecological security barrier.
(I) Establish an ecological space security system
1. Speed up the delineation of ecological protection. Formulated and issued "Several Opinions on Delineating and Strictly Observing the Red Line for Ecological Protection". In accordance with the principle of combining top-down and bottom-up, provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) delineate ecological protection red lines on the basis of scientific assessment, and land on water flows, forests, mountains, grasslands, wetlands, tidal flats, oceans, Desert, glaciers and other ecological spaces. Before the end of 2017, the provinces (autonomous regions and cities) along the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the Yangtze River Economic Belt delineated the red line for ecological protection; before the end of 2018, all provinces (autonomous regions and cities) delineated the red line for ecological protection; City) Complete the survey and define the target. On the basis of the ecological protection red line of each province (autonomous region, city), the Ministry of Environmental Protection, together with relevant departments, formed a national ecological protection red line, reported to the State Council, and released it to the public.
2. Promote the establishment and improvement of ecological protection red line control measures. By 2020, basically establish a red line system for ecological protection. Promote the ecological protection red line as the basis for the establishment of a territorial space planning system. Local organizations conduct surveys on the status quo, establish a red line ledger system for ecological protection, and identify the types and distribution of damaged ecosystems. Develop and implement an ecosystem protection and restoration plan, select the ecological protection red line with water conservation and biodiversity protection as the main functions, and carry out a number of conservation and restoration demonstrations. Organize regular evaluations of the ecological protection red line, and timely grasp the ecological function status and dynamic changes of the ecological protection red line in the country, key regions and counties. Promote the establishment and improvement of the red line compensation mechanism for ecological protection.
3. Strengthen the supervision and management of nature reserves. Formulate the National Natural Reserve Development Plan (2016-2025). Carry out remote sensing monitoring of human activities in nature reserves. National nature reserves are subject to remote sensing monitoring twice a year, and provincial nature reserves are subject to remote sensing monitoring once a year. Monitoring frequencies in key areas are increased and monitoring reports are issued regularly. Carry out assessment of the status of ecological environment protection in nature reserves. Strengthen supervision and law enforcement, regularly organize special law enforcement inspections of nature reserves, seriously investigate and punish illegal activities, and strengthen accountability supervision. Optimize the layout of nature reserves, focusing on the protection of important rivers, lakes, oceans, grassland ecosystems and aquatic organisms, small population species, and promote the establishment of a number of new nature reserves, and strengthen the construction of ecological corridors, protected communities and nature reserves. By 2020, the proportion of the area of nature reserves in China's land area will remain at about 14.8% (including the areas included in the pilot national parks). Improve the management level of nature reserves, strengthen the construction of management and protection capacity of nature reserves, improve the approval of the scope of nature reserves and the limits of functional areas, and the establishment of benchmarks, and promote the comprehensive scientific research and background investigation of nature reserves. Standardize the construction of 200 national nature reserves by 2020. Promote land ownership and use control in nature reserves. Promote the establishment of a public supervisor system in nature reserves. Ecological resettlement will be implemented step by step to residents living in the core areas and buffer zones of nature reserves.
4. Strengthen the protection and management of key ecological function zones. The key ecological function areas are the concentrated distribution areas of ecological space in China. We must actively coordinate relevant departments to promote major ecological protection and restoration projects to give priority to the layout of key ecological function areas and continuously expand the ecological space. Strengthen the evaluation of the ecological function status of key ecological function zones and counties, promote the formulation and implementation of a negative list of industrial access to key ecological function zones, and strengthen the control of ecological space uses. Promote the coordination of relevant departments and regions with regard to key ecological functional areas that are currently less affected by human activities and have good ecology, especially the source and upstream areas of the Dajiang River, increase the protection of natural vegetation, scientifically carry out the restoration and management of ecologically degraded areas, and continue to implement prevention Desertification and comprehensive management of soil erosion. With the main mountain ranges, rivers, coastal zones and other shelter forest systems as the context, a large-scale national ecological corridor is constructed to improve the connectivity of ecological protection areas. Accelerate the protection and restoration of ecosystems in disaster-prone areas.
(2) Strengthening the ecological quality and biodiversity improvement system
1. Implement major projects for biodiversity protection. Focus on biodiversity conservation priority areas, conduct biodiversity surveys and assessments, and thoroughly understand the biodiversity background of our country. Strengthen in-situ protection and ex-situ protection, improve the protection network system, and ensure that national strategic biological resources are better preserved. Restore areas with damaged biodiversity, carry out biodiversity protection and poverty reduction demonstrations, and promote the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries and poverty alleviation in western regions with rich biodiversity. Strengthen the building of basic capacity for biodiversity supervision, and comprehensively improve the level of biodiversity protection and management of governments at all levels. Coordinate relevant departments to implement the funds required for the project, organize relevant departments to implement major projects, and promote the implementation of the Strategy and Action Plan and the Ten Year China Action.
2. Strengthen the protection of biological genetic resources and biosafety management. Strengthen the protection and management of biological genetic resources, establish a system for obtaining and benefit-sharing of biological genetic resources and related traditional knowledge; regulate the activities of collection, preservation, exchange, cooperative research and development and utilization of biological genetic resources, strengthen exit supervision, and prevent the loss of biological genetic resources. Strengthen biosafety management, carry out risk assessment, follow-up monitoring and environmental impact research on the release of genetically modified organisms; strengthen environmental safety supervision of microbial inoculants for environmental protection. Actively prevent the invasion of alien species, carry out investigations on alien invasive species and ecological impact assessment, strengthen research on invasion mechanisms, diffusion pathways, response measures and development and utilization pathways, establish monitoring and early warning and risk management mechanisms, and explore and advance the institutionalization of biosecurity and invasive alien species management process.
3. Promote international cooperation and implementation of biodiversity. Organize and coordinate relevant departments to jointly implement international conventions such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and its Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the Nagoya Genetic Resources Protocol, and fulfill domestic implementation support with domestic work. Actively participate in the work on the “Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services” (IPBES). Do a good job in bidding for and preparing for the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15) in 2020.
4. Expand the supply of ecological products. Enrich ecological products, optimize the allocation of ecological service space, and enhance the capacity of ecological public services. Strengthen urban ecological protection, promote urban ecological construction and optimization of spatial layout, and enhance urban ecological service capabilities. Promote greater protection of scenic spots, forest parks, and wetland parks, moderately develop public leisure, tourism, and ecological health services and products, and accelerate the construction of urban and rural ecological infrastructure such as urban and rural greenways and country parks.
(3) Construction of an early warning and evaluation system for ecological security
1. Establish an ecological monitoring system of "integrated heaven and earth". Strengthen the application of satellite and UAV aerial remote sensing technology to improve the ability of ecological remote sensing monitoring. Establish a biodiversity ground observation system. By 2020, 50 new terrestrial biodiversity comprehensive observation stations will be built, rebuilt, or expanded, and more than 800 biodiversity observation plots will be built. Build a number of relatively fixed red line monitoring points for ecological protection. Priority is given to establishing observation stations and observation plots in the Yangtze River Economic Belt and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.
2. Conduct regular ecological assessments. Strengthen the annual evaluation of the quality of the ecological environment in key areas and the five-year survey and evaluation of the ecological environment. The national ecological state survey and evaluation in 2010-2015 was launched in 2016, and the national ecological state survey and evaluation in the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" period will be completed in 2020 to form a national ecological state regular assessment mechanism. The ecological protection red line, key ecological function zones, key river basins and urban ecological assessments were comprehensively carried out, and the quality and functional changes of ecosystems were systematically grasped.
Study and establish early warning systems for ecosystems and biodiversity, develop early warning models and technologies, and provide early warning of changes in ecosystems, risks of species extinction, and human interference. Promote the establishment of a unified monitoring and early warning assessment information release mechanism.
Carry out pilot projects of county-level ecological resource assets assessment. Promote the application of ecological status assessment results to the planning of industrial layout, land use, ecological environment protection, and urban and rural construction, and serve as ecological supervision systems such as ecological compensation, performance evaluation of leading cadres, accountability for ecological environmental damage, and auditing of departure of natural resource assets Important reference.
3. Establish a national ecological protection monitoring platform. Establish a comprehensive ecological protection monitoring platform to implement normalization and operational monitoring of development and construction activities such as ecological protection red lines, nature reserves, key ecological function areas, and priority areas for biodiversity protection, so as to change from passive supervision to active supervision and emergency Supervision becomes daily supervision, and decentralized supervision becomes system supervision. In 2016, the construction of a supervision platform focusing on nature reserves was initiated as the first phase of the national ecological protection monitoring platform; provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) should rely on the national ecological protection monitoring platform to strengthen capacity building, establish the administrative system of the administrative region, and implement Layered supervision. In 2018, the construction of the ecological protection red line supervision platform was completed as the second phase of the national ecological protection monitoring platform. Strengthen the ecological supervision and information construction, make full use of big data, the Internet, remote sensing, the Internet of Things and other technical means, integrate the establishment of a national ecological protection and biodiversity database, and incorporate it into the ecological environment big data system.
4. Strengthen supervision of ecological protection of development and construction activities. Strengthen the management of space, total volume, and access to the environment by means of the "red line for ecological protection, the bottom line for environmental quality, the online use of resources, and the negative list of environmental access". Give full play to the preventive effects of strategic environmental assessment and planning environmental assessment, reduce the occupation of ecological space by development and construction activities, and reasonably avoid sensitive and fragile ecological environments. Strengthen the environmental impact assessment of mineral resources development planning, optimize the development layout of mineral resources, and promote the ecological restoration of historical mines. Reasonably determine and arrange the construction of dams, strengthen scheduling and supervision, and effectively guarantee the minimum ecological water requirements; strengthen the construction of ecological facilities, and scientifically and reasonably carry out the proliferation and release of aquatic organisms. Arrange the construction of tourism infrastructure reasonably and determine the number of tourists based on the ecological carrying capacity. Promote the construction of transportation facilities to reasonably avoid ecologically sensitive areas, strengthen the construction of biological corridors, reduce ecological barriers, and strengthen the ecological restoration and management of operation periods after the completion of transportation facilities.
(4) Improve the ecological civilization demonstration construction system
1. Create a batch of ecological civilization construction demonstration areas and environmental protection model cities. In-depth implementation of the strategy of ecological province, focusing on cities and counties, classified guidance, and step-by-step advancement, extensively carry out the establishment of demonstration zones for ecological civilization construction, improve the standardization and institutionalization of demonstration zone construction, and create 60-100 ecological civilizations by 2020 Build a demonstration area. Revised the "Working Methods for the Establishment and Management of National Environmental Protection Model Cities" and the "National Environmental Protection Model Cities Assessment Indicators", strengthened the creation of planning and regional balance, strengthened hierarchical management and process supervision, and accelerated the review and naming of those that passed the assessment and acceptance before 2016. city. The establishment of an ecological civilization demonstration zone and an environmental protection model city must be strengthened as a whole and integrated, and fully integrated with the national ecological civilization experimental zone construction standards, and become a transformation carrier of the national ecological civilization experimental zone system results.
2. Continuously improve the level of demonstration construction of ecological civilization. Compile guidelines for the establishment of ecological civilization demonstration zones and environmental protection model cities to guide the practice of ecological civilization construction in various places. Strengthen the establishment of coordination with key environmental protection work, reform and improve the establishment of the evaluation and acceptance mechanism. Strengthen follow-up supervision and management, carry out effectiveness evaluations and experience summaries, and publicize and promote the existing replication model that can be used for reference. Enrich expert teams and establish expert committees. Continue to carry out the selection and commendation of China's Ecological Civilization Award, give full play to the role of typical demonstrations, and widely consolidate the strength of the whole society. Carry out research on the theory and practice of ecological civilization construction, and help promote the establishment of an evaluation and assessment mechanism for ecological civilization construction goals.
Fourth, safeguard measures
(I) Improve laws and regulations
Accelerate the introduction of the “Regulations on the Management of Access and Benefit Sharing of Biological Genetic Resources”, conduct post-assessment of the “Regulations on Nature Reserves”, advance the formulation of laws on nature reserves, and study the red line legislation for ecological protection. Strengthen relevant legislative coordination and promote the integration of ecological protection requirements into relevant provisions when laws and regulations on natural resources are revised. Promptly promulgate and implement the "Regulations on Remote Sensing Monitoring and Verification of Human Activities in Nature Reserves", and accelerate the improvement of the standard system of assessment, supervision, and law enforcement related to ecological protection.
(2) Improve the institutional mechanism
Give full play to the coordinating role of existing mechanisms and platforms such as China's National Committee for Biodiversity Conservation, the National Nature Reserve Evaluation Committee, and the Inter-Ministerial Association for the Protection of Biological Species Resources, promote the formulation and implementation of cross-sectoral ecological protection policies and measures, and coordinate relevant departments Big investment in ecological protection. Accelerate the establishment of linkage mechanisms for environmental protection departments at all levels that are linked and communicate smoothly. Actively participate in the reform of relevant national institutions and mechanisms, and promote the rationalization of corresponding institutions and responsibilities. Carry out research and pilot demonstrations of the national park system and explore the establishment of a national park administration system. Promote the establishment and improvement of land and space development and protection systems, as well as ecological environment damage assessment and compensation systems, and ecological protection compensation systems. Support local governments to establish ecological protection compensation mechanisms.
(3) Strengthening technological support
Strengthen basic research on ecological protection and scientific and technological research, and improve management technical systems such as ecological investigation and evaluation, monitoring and early warning, and risk prevention. Focus on the research on the scientific laws of biodiversity and key technologies such as biosafety support technology, ecological restoration technology, and ecosystem monitoring and evaluation, and promote special support for ecological protection technology. Strengthen international scientific and technological cooperation and exchanges, actively introduce advanced foreign ecological protection concepts, management experience and technical means, and improve and improve domestic coordination mechanisms.
(4) Promote joint protection
Relying on biodiversity day, environment day and other activity platforms, we will increase publicity and education on ecological protection, strengthen policy interpretation, expand protection consensus, and mobilize the whole society to participate in ecological protection. Strengthen government, enterprise and public ecological protection training, build social practice bases for environmental education in primary and secondary schools, and raise the awareness of ecological protection responsibilities of the whole society, especially leading cadres. Relying on the environmental protection news release system, make full use of the "12369" environmental reporting hotline and other platforms to increase the disclosure of ecological and environmental information, regularly release ecological protection information, and protect the public's right to know and monitor ecological protection. Give play to the role of guidance and supervision of social organizations, strengthen the main responsibility of enterprises to protect the ecology, and form a joint force for the whole society to participate in ecological protection.
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